What is Ecosystem and its Components?

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Ecosystem and its Components: If we look around, we see a variety of living and non-living things. All the living and non-living things around us are called our environment. The environment consists of living and non-living components. Both these components interact with each other. Every living thing lives in a particular environment. Fish live in water, tigers live in forests whereas human beings live in villages and cities. The birds make nests on the trees and the ants live underground in colonies. Do you know other animals that live in particular environments?


The living and non-living components of any environment make the ecosystem. Various types of ecosystem are found on our earth for example, forests, grasslands, oceans, rivers, ponds, snowy areas and deserts.

Components of Ecosystem

  1. Abiotic Components
  2. Biotic Components
Abiotic vs Biotic

Abiotic Components

The non-living components of an ecosystem are called abiotic components. These include temperature, air, water, light and soil.

Biotic Components

The living components of an ecosystem are called biotic components. The biotic components consist of three groups, which are given below:

1. Producer

Plants produce food for themselves and for animals with the help of water and sunlight. That is why, they are called producers. All the plants e.g., herbs, climbers, shrubs and trees are producers. Aquatic plants (for example lotus) and algae are also producers. These are a major source of food for the aquatic animals.


2. Consumer

The living things which obtain food from other living things are called. consumers. They cannot . make their own food. They depend on plants or plant-eating animals for their food. All animals and humans are consumers.


3. Decomposer

The living things which break down the dead bodies of plants and animals into simple particles and obtain their food from these, are called decomposers. Some bacteria and many fungi are the main decomposers.


What is Balanced Ecosystem?

The Sun is the main source of energy in an ecosystem. The plants make food with the help of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. They also produce oxygen in this process. This oxygen is used by animals for respiration. During respiration, animals produce carbon dioxide which is used by plants to make food. Such self-sustaining and durable ecosystem is called a balanced ecosystem. All the living things are essential for one another. They affect the lives of one another. Some animals benefit or harm one another.

Role of Humans to Save the Ecosystem

Humans have done irreversible damage to the environment, but they are trying to save the ecosystem as well. Following are some steps that are being taken to save the ecosystem.

  1. Wildlife parks have been made to save the habitats of various species.
  2. Tree plantation is being done and artificial forests are being created to provide natural habitat to living things.
  3. Awareness is being created to save the environment and habitats of living things.

World Earth Day: This day is celebrated around the world on 22nd April to demonstrate environmental protection. On this day, in Pakistan lights are switched OFF from 8 to 9 at night.

Plantation Day: Plantation day can be observed everyday but in schools across Pakistan it is celebrated in August as ‘tree plantation week’.

Prime Minister of Pakistan is Planting on Plantation Day

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